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C —CAD

Terms of payment: if the buyer of goods pays for the goods against transfer of the documents, entitling him to obtain delivery of the goods from the carrier.

CAF

Adjustment applied by P&O Nedlloyd lines or liner conferences on freight rates to offset losses or gains for carriers resulting from fluctuations in exchange rates of tariff currencies.

CENSA

Council of European and Japanese National Shipowner’s Associations.

F— FMC

Federal Maritime Commission (Control of Shipping acts USA).

FTL

Full Truck Load, an indication for a truck transporting cargo directly from supplier to receiver.

Abbreviation: LTL

A term used if the quantity or volume of one or more consignment(s) does not fill a standard truck.

Acceptance

The process of receiving a consignment from a consignor, usually against the issue of a receipt. As from this moment and on this place the carrier’s responsibility for the consignment begins.

Act of God

Accidents of a nature beyond human control such as flood, lightning or hurricane usually quoted as ‘force majeure’.

Ad Valorem

In proportion to the value: A phrase applied to certain freight or customs duties levied on goods, property, etc. set as a percentage of their value.

Advice Note

A written piece of information e.g. about the status of the goods.

Agency Fee

Fee payable by a shipowner or ship operator to a port agent.

Agent

An Agent is a corporate body with, which there is an agreement to perform particular functions on behalf of them at an agreed payment. An Agent is either a part of the organisation or an independent body.

Air Waybill

Abbreviation: AWBA document made out by or on behalf of the carrier(s) confirming receipt of the goods by the carrier and evidencing the contract between the shipper and the carrier(s) for the carriage of goods as described therein.

Allotment

A share of the capacity of a means of transport assigned to a certain party, e.g. a carrier or an agent, for the purpose of the booking of cargo for a specific voyage.

American Bureau of Shipping

Abbreviation: ABS American classification society which has established rules and regulations for the classification of seagoing vessels or equipment.

Arbitration

The process of referring to an agreed person for judgement on issues of dispute, without requiring the use of courts.

Arrival Date

The date on which goods or a means of transport is due to arrive at the delivery site of the transport.

Arrival Notice

A notice sent by a carrier to a nominated notify party advising of the arrival of a certain shipment or consignment.

Assignment

The transfer of certain rights from one party to another.

Authorised Consignee / Consignor

A trader authorised by the European Commission (regulation 2454/93) to receive or dispatch consignments under transit procedures without having to present goods and documents directly at the customs office.

Authorization

The commission to a certain person or body to act on behalf of another person or body. The person or body can be authorised e.g. to issue Bills of Lading or to collect freight.

Average Adjusters

In general average affairs average adjusters are entrusted with the task of apportioning the loss and expenditure over the parties interested in the maritime venture and to determine which expenses are to be regarded as average or general average.

Average

In marine insurance: a loss or damage to or in respect of goods or equipment.
The numerical result obtained by dividing the sum of two or more quantities by the number of quantities.

B / L

A particular article, stipulation or single proviso in a Bill of Lading. A clause can be standard and can be pre-printed on the B / L.

Bank Guarantee

An undertaking by a bank to be answerable for payment of a sum of money in the event of non performance by the party on whose behalf the guarantee is issued.

Bar Coding

A method of encoding data for fast and accurate electronic readability. Bar codes are a series of alternating bars and spaces printed or stamped on products, labels, or other media, representing encoded information which can be read by electronic readers, used to facilitate timely and accurate input of data to a computer system. Bar codes represent letters and/or numbers and special characters like +, /, -, etc.

Bay Plan

A stowage plan which shows the locations of all the containers on the vessel.

Bay

A vertical division of a vessel from stem to stern, used as a part of the indication of a stowage place for containers. The numbers run from stem to stern; odd numbers indicate a 20 foot position, even numbers indicate a 40 foot position.

Berth

A location in a port where a vessel can be moored often indicated by a code or name.

Bilateral Transport Agreement

Agreement between two nations concerning their transport relations.

Bill of Exchange

An unconditional order in writing to pay a certain sum of money to a named person.

Bill of Health

The Bill of Health is the certificate issued by local medical authorities indicating the general health conditions in the port of departure or in the ports of call. The Bill of Health must have been visaed before departure by the Consul of the country of destination.

Bill of Lading Clause

A particular article, stipulation or single proviso in a Bill of Lading. A clause can be standard and can be pre-printed on the B/L.

Bill of Lading

Abbreviation: B/L, plural Bs/L A document which evidences a contract of carriage by sea.
The document has the following functions:
A receipt for goods, signed by a duly authorised person on behalf of the carriers A document of title to the goods described therein Evidence of the terms and conditions of carriage agreed upon between the two parties.

At the moment 3 different models are used: A document for either Combined Transport or Port to Port shipments depending whether the relevant spaces for place of receipt and/or place of delivery are indicated on the face of the document A classic marine Bill of Lading in which the carrier is also responsible for the part of the transport actually performed by himself Sea Waybill: A non-negotiable document, which can only be made out to a named consignee. No surrender of the document by the consignee is required.

Bill of Material

A list of all parts, sub-assemblies and raw materials that constitute a particular assembly, showing the quantity of each required item.

Block Train

A number of railway wagons (loaded with containers), departing from a certain place and running straight to a place of destination, without marshalling, transhipping or any coupling or de-coupling of wagons.

Bona Fide

In good faith; without dishonesty, fraud or deceit.

Bonded

The storage of certain goods under charge of customs viz. customs seal until the import duties are paid or until the goods are taken out of the country.
Bonded warehouse (place where goods can be placed under bond) Bonded store (place on a vessel where goods are placed behind seal until the time that the vessel leaves the port or country again) Bonded goods (dutiable goods upon which duties have not been paid i.e. goods in transit or warehoused pending customs clearance).

Booking Reference Number

The number assigned to a certain booking by the carrier or his agent.

Booking

The offering by a shipper of cargo for transport and the acceptance of the offering by the carrier or his agent.

Break Bulk Cargo

General cargo conventionally stowed as opposed to unitised, containerised and Roll On-Roll Off cargo.

Break Bulk

To commence discharge ,To strip unitised cargo.

Broker

Person who acts as an agent or intermediary in negotiating contracts.

Brussels Tariff Nomenclature

The old Customs Co-operation Council Nomenclature for the classification of goods. Now replaced by the Harmonised System.

BSI Container Specification

Accidents of a nature beyond human control such as flood, lightning or hurricane usually quoted as ‘force majeure’.

Buffer Stock

A quantity of goods or articles kept in store to safeguard against unforeseen shortages or demands.

Bulk Cargo

Unpacked homogeneous cargo poured loose in a certain space of a vessel or container e.g. oil and grain.

Bulk Carrier

Unpacked homogeneous cargo poured loose in a certain space of a vessel or container e.g. oil and grain.

Bulk Container

A container designed for the carriage of free-flowing dry cargoes, which are loaded through hatchways in the roof of the container and discharged through hatchways at one end of the container..

Bunker Adjustment Factor

Abbreviation: BAF Adjustment applied by liner or liner conferences to offset the effect of fluctuations in the cost of bunkers.

Bunkers

Quantity of fuel on board a vessel.

Bureau Veritas

French classification society.

Business Process Model

The business process model provides a breakdown (process decomposition) of all levels of business processes within the scope of a business area. It also shows process dynamics, lower-level process interrelationships. In Summary it includes all diagrams related to a process definition that allows for understanding what the business process is doing (and not how).

Business Process

A business process is the action taken to respond to particular events, convert inputs into outputs, and produce particular results. Business processes are what the enterprise must do to conduct its business successfully.

Buyer

Party to which merchandise is sold. The process of receiving a consignment from a consignor, usually against the issue of a receipt. As from this moment and on this place the carrier’s responsibility for the consignment begins.

Cabotage

Cabotage
Transport of goods between two ports or places located in the same country. Transport of cargo in a country other than the country where the vehicle is registered road-cargo). The carriage of a container from a surplus area to an area specified by the Owner of that container, in exchange of which and during which the operator can use this container.

Call Sign

A code published by the International Telecommunication Union in its annual List of Ships’ Stations to be used for the information interchange between vessels, port authorities and other relevant participants in international trade. Note: The code structure is based on a three digit designation series assigned by the ITU and a one digit assigned by the country of registration.

Call

The visit of a vessel to a port.

Capacity

The ability, in a given time, of a resource measured in quality and quantity. The quantity of goods which can be stored in or loaded into a warehouse, store and/or loaded into a means of transport at a particular time.

Cargo Handling

All procedures necessary to enable the physical handling of goods.

Cargo Tracer

A document sent by the agent to all relevant parties, stating that certain cargo is either missing or over-landed.

Cargo Unit

A vehicle, container, pallet, flat, portable tank or any other entity or any part thereof which belongs to the ship but is not permanently attached to that ship.

Cargo

Goods transported or to be transported, all goods carried on a ship covered by a B/L. Any goods, wares, merchandise, and articles of every kind whatsoever carried on a ship, other than mail, ship’s stores, ship’s spare parts, ship’s equipment, stowage material, crew’s effects and passengers’ accompanied baggage (IMO) Any property carried on an aircraft, other than mail, stores and accompanied or mishandled baggage Also referred to as ‘goods’ (ICAO).

Carriage and Insurance Paid To (…named place of destination)

Abbreviation: CIP

Carriage Paid To (…named place of destination)

Abbreviation: CPT

Carriage

The process of transporting (conveying) cargo, from one point to another.

Carrier Haulage

The inland transport service, which is performed by the sea-carrier under the terms and conditions of the tariff and of the relevant transport document.

Carriers Bill of Lading Ports

Terminal, Pre-terminal port or Post-terminal Port as per tariff, indicated on the Bill of Lading and which is not the port physically called at by Carriers’ ocean vessels. Note: Under normal circumstances in the B/L only ports should be mentioned which are actually called at.

Carriers Lien

When the shipper ships goods ‘collect’, the carrier has a possessory claim on these goods, which means that the carrier can retain possession of the goods as security for the charges due.

Carrier

The party undertaking transport of goods from one point to another.

Cartage

Abbreviation: CAD
Terms of payment: if the buyer of goods pays for the goods against transfer of the documents, entitling him to obtain delivery of the goods from the carrier.

Cash On Delivery

Abbreviation: COD
Terms of payment: if the carrier collects a payment from the consignee and remits the amount to the shipper (air cargo).

Caveat Emptor

Let the buyer beware, purchaser must ascertain the condition of the goods to be purchased prior to the purchase.

Cellular Vessel

A vessel, specially designed and equipped for the carriage of containers.

Certificate of Classification

A certificate, issued by the classification society and stating the class under which a vessel is registered.

Certificate of Origin

A certificate, showing the country of original production of goods. Frequently used by customs in ascertaining duties under preferential tariff programmes or in connection with regulating imports from specific sources.

Charge Type

A separate, identifiable element of charges to be used in the pricing/rating of common services rendered to customers.

Charge

An amount to be paid for carriage of goods based on the applicable rate of such carriage, or an amount to be paid for a special or incidental service in connection with the carriage of goods.

Charter Party

A contract in which the shipowner agrees to place his vessel or a part of it at the disposal of a third party, the charterer, for the carriage of goods for which he receives a freight per ton cargo, or to let his vessel for a definite period or trip for which a hire is paid.

Charterer

The legal person who has signed a charter party with the owner of a vessel or an aircraft and thus hires or leases a vessel or an aircraft or a part of the capacity thereof.

Chassis

A wheeled carriage onto which an ocean container is mounted for inland conveyance.

The part of a motor vehicle that includes the engine, the frame, suspension system, wheels, steering mechanism etc., but not the body.

Claim

A charge made against a carrier for loss, damage or delay.

Classification Society

An Organisation, whose main function is to carry out surveys of vessels, its purpose being to set and maintain standards of construction and upkeep for vessels, their engines and their safety equipment. A classification society also inspects and approves the construction of containers.

Classification

Arrangement according to a systematic division of a number of objects into groups, based on some likeness or some common traits.

Clean Bill of Lading

A Bill of Lading which does not contain any qualification about the apparent order and condition of the goods to be transported (it bears no stamped clauses on the front of the B/L). It bears no superimposed clauses expressly declaring a defective condition of the goods or packaging (resolution of the ICS 1951).

Clean on Board

When goods are loaded on board and the document issued in respect to these goods is clean.
Note: Through the usage of the UCP 500 rules the term has now become superfluous.

Client

A party with which a company has a commercial relationship concerning the transport of e.g. cargo or concerning certain services of the company concerned, either directly or through an agent.

Co-loading

The loading, on the way, of cargo from another shipper, having the same final destination as the cargo loaded earlier.

Combined Transport Document

Abbreviation: CTD
Negotiable or non-negotiable document evidencing a contract for the performance and/or procurement of performance of combined transport of goods.
Thus a combined transport document is a document issued by a Carrier who contracts as a principal with the Merchant to effect a combined transport often on a door-to-door basis.

Combined Transport Operator

Abbreviation: CTO
A party who undertakes to carry goods with different modes of transport.

Combined Transport

Intermodal transport where the major part of the journey is by one mode such as rail, inland waterway or sea and any initial and/or final leg carried out by another mode such as road.

Commercial Invoice

A document showing commercial values of the transaction between the buyer and seller.

Commodity

Indication of the type of goods. Commodities are coded according to the harmonised system.

Conditions of Carriage

The general terms and conditions established by a carrier in respect of the carriage (air cargo).

Conditions of Contract

Terms and conditions shown on the Air Waybill (air cargo).

Conditions

Anything called for as requirements before the performance or completion of something else Contractual stipulations which are printed on a document or provided separately

Conference

Accumulation of vessels at a port to the extent that vessels arriving to load or discharge are obliged to wait for a vacant berth.

Consignee

The party such as mentioned in the transport document by whom the goods, cargo or containers are to be received.

Consignment Instruction

Instructions from either the seller/consignor or the buyer/consignee to a freight forwarder, carrier or his agent, or other provider of a service, enabling the movement of goods and associated activities. The following functions can be covered:
Movement and handling of goods (shipping, forwarding and stowage).
Customs formalities.
Distribution of documents.
Allocation of documents (freight and charges for the connected operations).
Special instructions (insurance, dangerous goods, goods release, additional documents required).

Consignment Note

A document prepared by the shipper and comprising a transport contract. It contains details of the consignment to be carried to the port of loading and it is signed by the inland carrier as proof of receipt.

Consignment

A separate identifiable number of goods (available to be) transported from one consignor to one consignee via one or more than one modes of transport and specified in one single transport document.

Consignor

To group and stuff several shipments together in one container.

Consolidated Container

Container stuffed with several shipments (consignments) from different shippers for delivery to one or more consignees.

Consolidation Point

Location where consolidation of consignments takes place.

Consolidation

The grouping together of smaller consignments of goods into a large consignment for carriage as a larger unit in order to obtain a reduced rate.

Consolidator

A firm or company which consolidates cargo.

Consortium

Consortium is a form of co-operation between two or more carriers to operate in a particular trade.

Container Check Digit

The 7th digit of the serial number of a container used to check whether prefix and serial number are correct.

Container Depot

Storage area for empty containers.

Container Freight Station

Abbreviation: CFS
A facility at which (export) LCL cargo is received from merchants for loading (stuffing) into containers or at which (import) LCL cargo is unloaded (stripped) from containers and delivered to merchants.

Container Lease

The contract by which the owner of containers (lessor) gives the use of containers to a lessee for a specified period of time and for fixed payments.

Container Load Plan (CLP)

A list of items loaded in a specific container and where appropriate their sequence of loading.

Container Manifest

The document specifying the contents of particular freight containers or other transport units, prepared by the party responsible for their loading into the container or unit.

Container Number

Identification number of a container consisting of prefix and serial number and check digit. (e.g. KNLU 123456-7).

Container Prefix

A four letter code that forms the first part of a container identification number indicating the owner of a container.

Container Size Code

An indication of 2 digits of the nominal length and nominal height.

Container Terminal

Place where loaded and/or empty containers are loaded or discharged into or from a means of transport.

Container Yard

Abbreviation: CY
A facility at which FCL traffic and empty containers are received from or delivered to the Merchant by or on behalf of the Carrier.
Note: Often this yard is used to receive goods on behalf of the merchant and pack these in containers for FCL traffic.

Containerised

Indication that goods have been stowed in a container.

Container

An item of equipment as defined by the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) for transport purposes. It must be of:
A permanent character and accordingly strong enough to be suitable for repeated use
Specially designed to facilitate the carriage of goods, by one or more modes of transport without intermediate reloading
Fitted with devices permitting its ready handling, particularly from one mode of transport to another
So designed as to be easy to fill and empty
Having an internal volume of 1 m3 or more
The term container includes neither vehicles nor conventional packing.

Contraband

Goods forbidden by national law to be imported or exported.

Contract

An agreement enforceable by law between two or more parties stipulating their rights and obligations which are required by one or both parties to acts or forbearance by the other or both.

Conventional Cargo

General cargo conventionally stowed as opposed to unitised, containerised and Roll On-Roll Off cargo.

Cost and Freight (…named port of destination)

Abbreviation: CFR

Cost, Insurance and Freight (…named port of destination)

Abbreviation: CIF

Crew Member

Any person actually employed for duties on board during a voyage in the working or service of a ship and included in the crew list (IMO).

Cruise Ship

A ship on an international voyage carrying passengers participating in a group program and accommodated on board, for the purpose of making scheduled temporary tourist visits at one or more different ports, and which during the voyage does not normally: (a) embark or disembark any other passengers; (b) load or discharge any cargo.

Currency Adjustment Factor

Abbreviation: CAF
Adjustment applied by lines or liner conferences on freight rates to offset losses or gains for carriers resulting from fluctuations in exchange rates of tariff currencies.

Customs Broker

An authorised agent specialised in customs clearance procedures on account of importers/exporters.

Customs Clearance Agent

Customs broker or other agent of the consignee designated to perform customs clearance services for the consignee.

Customs Invoice

Document required by the customs in an importing country in which an exporter states the invoice or other price (e.g. selling price, price of identical goods), and specifies costs for freight, insurance and packing etc., terms of delivery and payment, for the purpose of determining the customs value in the importing country of goods consigned to that country.

Customs Value

The worth of an item or group of items expressed in a monetary amount, within a consignment declared to Customs for duty and statistical reasons.

Customs

The department of the Civil Service that deals with the levying of duties and taxes on imported goods from foreign countries and the control over the export and import of goods e.g. allowed quota prohibited goods.

D— Damaged Cargo Report

Written statement concerning established damages to cargo and/or equipment.

Dangerous Goods Declaration

Document issued by a consignor in accordance with applicable conventions or regulations, describing hazardous goods or materials for transport purposes, and stating that the latter have been packed and labelled in accordance with the provisions of the relevant conventions or regulations.

Dangerous Goods Packing Certificate

A document as part of the dangerous goods declaration in which the responsible party declares that the cargo has been stowed in accordance with the rules in a clean container in compliance with the IMDG regulations and properly secured.

Dangerous Goods

Goods are to be considered dangerous if the transport of such goods might cause harm, risk, peril, or other evil to people, environment, equipment or any property whatsoever.

Dead freight

Slots paid for but not used.

Deadweight

Abbreviation: DWT
The total weight of cargo, cargo equipment, bunkers, provisions, water, stores and spare parts which a vessel can lift when loaded to her maximum draught as applicable under the circumstances. The dead-weight is expressed in tons.

Degroupage

The ability, in a given time, of a resource measured in quality and quantity. The quantity of goods which can be stored in or loaded into a warehouse, store and/or loaded into a means of transport at a particular time.

Delivered Duty Paid (…named place of destination)

Abbreviation: DDP

Delivered Duty Unpaid (…named place of destination)

Abbreviation: DDU

Delivered Ex Quay (…named port of destination)

Abbreviation: DEQ

Delivered Ex Ship (…named port of destination)

Abbreviation: DES

Delivery Instruction

Document issued by a buyer giving instructions regarding the details of the delivery of goods ordered.

Delivery Note

A document recording the delivery of products to a consignee (customer).

Delivery Order

A carrier’s delivery order (negotiable document) is used for splitting a B/L (after surrender) in different parcels and have the same function as a B/L. The authorisation of the entitled party for the shipment to a party other than the consignee showed on the Air Waybill (air cargo).

Demurrage

A variable fee charged to carriers and/or customers for the use of Unit Load Devices (ULD’s) owned by a carrier beyond the free time of shipment. Additional charge imposed for exceeding the free time, which is included in the rate and allowed for the use of certain equipment at the terminal.

Destination

Place for which goods or a vehicle is bound. The ultimate stopping place according to the contract of carriage (air cargo).

Detention Charge

Charges levied on usage of equipment exceeding free time period as stipulated in the pertinent inland rules and conditions.

Detention

Keeping equipment beyond the time allowed.

Devanning

See Stripping, Unpacking Deviation from a Route. A divergence from the agreed or customary route.

Dimensions

Measurements in length, width and height, regarding cargo.

Direct Delivery

The conveyance of goods directly from the vendor to the buyer. Frequently used if a third party acts as intermediary agent between vendor and buyer. Direct discharge from vessel onto railroad car, road vehicle or barge with the purpose of immediate transport from the port area (usually occurs when ports lack adequate storage space or when ports are not equipped to handle a specific cargo).

Direct Interchange

Transfer of leased equipment from one lessee to another (container).

Direct Route

The shortest operated route between two points.

Discharge

The unloading of a vehicle, a vessel or an aircraft. The landing of cargo.

Discrepancy

Difference between the particulars given and the particulars found.

Dispatch Advice

Information send by shippers to the recipient of goods informing that specified goods are sent or ready to be sent advising the detailed contents of the consignment.

Distribution Centre

A warehouse for the receipt, the storage and the dispersal of goods among customers.

Distribution Channel

The route by which a company distributes goods.

Door to Door Transport

The transport of cargo from the premises of the consignor to the premises of the consignee. Note: In the United States the term ‘Point to Point Transport’ is used instead of the term ‘Door to Door Transport’, because the term ‘house’ may mean ‘customs house’ or ‘brokers house’, which are usually located in the port.

Double Stack Train

A number of railway wagons, usually a block train, on which containers can be stacked two- high.

Draft

The draft of a vessel is the vertical distance between the waterline and the underside of the keel of the vessel. During the construction of a vessel the marks showing the draft are welded on each side of the vessel near the stem, the stern and amidships.

Drawback

Repayment of any part of customs or excise duties previously collected on imported goods, when those goods are exported again.

Drayage

The hauling of a load by a cart with detachable sides (dray). Road transportation between the nearest railway terminal and the stuffing place.

Drop of Charge

Charge made by container owner and/or terminal operators for delivery of a leased, or pool container into depot stock. The drop-off charge may be a combination of actual handling and storage charges with surcharges.

Dunnage

Stowage material, mainly timber or board, used to prevent damage to cargo during carriage.

Duty Free Zone

An area where goods or cargo can be stored without paying import customs duties awaiting further transport or manufacturing.

E— EDI For Administration, Commerce and Transport

Abbreviation: UN/EDIFACTThe ISO application level syntax rules for the structuring of user data and of the associated service data in the interchange of messages in an open environment.

Electronic Data Interchange

Abbreviation: EDI The transfer of structured data, by agreed standards from applications on the computer of one party to the applications on the computer of another party by electronic means.

Electronic Data Processing

Abbreviation: EDP The computerised handling of information (e.g. business data).

Embargo

A government order prohibiting the entry or departure of commercial vessels or goods at its ports The refusal by a carrier, for a limited period, to accept for transport over any route or segment thereof, and to or from any area or point, of a connecting carrier, any commodity, type of class of cargo duly tendered (air cargo).

Emergency Medical Service

Abbreviation: EMS Medical procedures in case of emergencies on board of vessels.

Endorsement

The transfer of the right to obtain delivery of the goods of the carrier by means of the consignee’s signature on the reverse side of a bill of lading. If the name of the new consignee (transferee) is not stated, the endorsement is an open one which means that every holder of the document is entitled to obtain delivery of the goods.

Equipment Interchange Receipt

Abbreviation: EIR Physical inspection and transfer receipt.

Estimated Time of Arrival

Abbreviation: ETA The expected date and time of arrival in a certain (air)port.

Estimated Time of Departure

Abbreviation: ETD The expected date and time when a certain (air)port is left.

Ex Works (…named place)

Abbreviation: EXW

Export Licence

Document granting permission to export as detailed within a specified time.

Exporter

The party responsible for the export of goods.

Export

The process of carrying or sending goods to another country or countries, especially for purposes of use or sale in the country of destination. The sale of products to clients abroad.

Factory Delivery

The delivery of goods by a factory whereby the goods are put at the disposal of another (internal) party such as a commercial department.

Feeder

A vessel normally used for local or coastal transport (for carriage of cargo and/or containers) to and from ports not scheduled to be called by the main (ocean) vessel, directly connecting these ports to the main (ocean) vessel.

Flag

An indication of the country in which a means of transport is registered through a reference to the ensign of this country.

Flammable

Capable to be set on fire under given circumstances. (Amendment 25 IMO DGS).

Flash Point

The lowest temperature at which a good produces enough vapour to form a flammable mixture with air.

Flat Rack Container

A container with two end walls and open sides.

Fleet

Any group of means of transport acting together or under one control.

Force Majeure

Circumstance which is beyond the control of one of the parties to a contract and which may, according to the terms and conditions, relieve that party of liability for failing to execute the contract.

Fork Lift Truck

A three or four wheeled mechanical truck with forks at the front designed for lifting, carrying and stowing cargo.

Forty Foot Equivalent Unit

Abbreviation: FEU
Unit of measurement equivalent to one forty foot container.

Forwarder

The party arranging the carriage of goods including connected services and/or associated formalities on behalf of a shipper or consignee.

Forwarding Charge

Charges paid or to be paid for preliminary surface or air transport to the airport of departure by a forwarder, but not by a carrier under an Air Waybill (air cargo).

Forwarding Instruction

Document issued to a freight forwarder, giving instructions to the forwarder for the forwarding of goods described therein.